The very earliest reports are in these texts: There reasons to suppose that they were written within a few years of the crucifixion of Jesus and came from the Jerusalem Church. Christianity thought the Jewish scriptures to be sacred and used mostly the Septuagint edition and translation as the Old Testamentand added other texts as the New Testament canon developed. Christians professed Jesus to be the God of Israelhaving taken human form, and considered Jesus to be the Messiah Christ who had been prophesied about in the Old Testament and so was expected by the people of Israel.
Cluny[ edit ] From the 6th century onward most of the monasteries in the West were of the Benedictine Order. Owing to the stricter adherence to a reformed Benedictine rulethe abbey of Cluny became the acknowledged leader of western monasticism from the later 10th century. Cluny created a large, federated order in which the administrators of subsidiary houses served as deputies of the abbot of Cluny and answered to him.
The Cluniac spirit was a revitalising influence on the Norman church, at its height from the second half of the 10th centuries through the early 12th. Bernard of Clairvauxin a medieval illuminated manuscript.
The next wave of monastic reform came with the Cistercian Movement.
The keynote of Cistercian life was a return to a literal observance of the Benedictine rulerejecting the developments of the Benedictines. The most striking feature in the reform was the return to manual labour, and especially to field-work.
Inspired by Bernard of Clairvauxthe primary builder of the Cistercians, they became the main force of technological diffusion in medieval Europe. By the end of the 12th century the Cistercian houses numberedand at its height in the 15th century the order claimed to have close to houses.
Most of these were built in wilderness areas, and played a major part in bringing such isolated parts of Europe into economic cultivation. Mendicant orders[ edit ] A third level of monastic reform was provided by the establishment of the Mendicant orders.
Commonly known as friars, mendicants live under a monastic rule with traditional vows of poverty, chastity and obediencebut they emphasise preaching, missionary activity, and education, in a secluded monastery. Beginning in the 12th centurythe Franciscan order was instituted by the followers of Francis of Assisiand thereafter the Dominican order was begun by St.
Investiture Controversy Henry IV at the gate of Canossa, by August von Heyden The Investiture Controversyor Lay investiture controversy, was the most significant conflict between secular and religious powers in medieval Europe.
The end of lay investiture threatened to undercut the power of the Empire and the ambitions of noblemen for the benefit of Church reform. Bishops collected revenues from estates attached to their bishopric. Noblemen who held lands fiefdoms hereditarily passed those lands on within their family.
However, because bishops had no legitimate children, when a bishop died it was the king's right to appoint a successor. So, while a king had little recourse in preventing noblemen from acquiring powerful domains via inheritance and dynastic marriages, a king could keep careful control of lands under the domain of his bishops.
Kings would bestow bishoprics to members of noble families whose friendship he wished to secure. Furthermore, if a king left a bishopric vacant, then he collected the estates' revenues until a bishop was appointed, when in theory he was to repay the earnings. The infrequence of this repayment was an obvious source of dispute.
The Church wanted to end this lay investiture because of the potential corruption, not only from vacant sees but also from other practices such as simony. Thus, the Investiture Contest was part of the Church's attempt to reform the episcopate and provide better pastoral care. Pope Gregory VII issued the Dictatus Papaewhich declared that the pope alone could appoint or depose bishops, or translate them to other sees.
Henry VI's rejection of the decree lead to his excommunication and a ducal revolt; eventually Henry received absolution after dramatic public penance barefoot in Alpine snow and cloaked in a hairshirt see Walk to Canossathough the revolt and conflict of investiture continued.
AnselmArchbishop of Canterbury, over investiture and ecclesiastical revenues collected by the king during an episcopal vacancy. The English dispute was resolved by the Concordat of London,where the king renounced his claim to invest bishops but continued to require an oath of fealty from them upon their election.
This was a partial model for the Concordat of Worms Pactum Calixtinumwhich resolved the Imperial investiture controversy with a compromise that allowed secular authorities some measure of control but granted the selection of bishops to their cathedral canons.
As a symbol of the compromise, lay authorities invested bishops with their secular authority symbolised by the lance, and ecclesiastical authorities invested bishops with their spiritual authority symbolised by the ring and the staff. Crusades The Crusades were a series of military conflicts conducted by Christian knights for the defense of Christians and for the expansion of Christian domains.
Generally, the Crusades refer to the campaigns in the Holy Land sponsored by the papacy against invading Muslim forces. There were other crusades against Islamic forces in southern Spain, southern Italy, and Sicily, as well as the campaigns of Teutonic knights against pagan strongholds in Eastern Europe see Northern Crusades.
A few crusades such as the Fourth Crusade were waged within Christendom against groups that were considered heretical and schismatic also see the Battle of the Ice and the Albigensian Crusade. The Holy Land had been part of the Roman Empire, and thus Byzantine Empire, until the Islamic conquests of the seventh and eighth centuries.The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion, Christendom, and the Church with its various denominations, from the 1st century to the present.
Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christianity spread to all of Europe in the Middle Ages. A Course That Cannot be Evaded COVER THEME Europe, Britain & the Nation of Israel: A Course Which Cannot be Evaded. Paul Billington FEATURES IN THIS ISSUE 1. The Cities of Refuge.
Don Pearce 2. The Duration of Human Rule over the World. John Thomas 3. God is Spirit. Christians and Muslims Timothy George As we seek to understand some of the major differences between Christianity and Islam, it is impossible to ignore 1, years of a conflicted history.
The god of Muslims is revealed as a tyrant who demands Muslims and all others submit to him. Whereas in the New Testament, Jesus revealed to Christians a God who is a loving Father, who wants us to come to Him via free will.
History is of different kinds, or treats of different subjects as a history of government or political history history of the christian church, or ecclesiastical history history of war and conquests, or military history history of law history of commerce history of the crusades, &c.
BSF International (BSF), formerly known as Bible Study Fellowship, is a popular "interdenominational lay Christian organization with Bible study classes in cities across the United States and the world."This para-church group was founded by A. Wetherell Johnson, a former, unmarried female missionary with the China Inland Mission (Hudson Taylor).